The fire alarm panel is the "brain" of an installation. It collects the detected signals and activates the warning signals and evacuation of the installation.

centrales de incendio convencionales o analogicas

We can divide them into two types: conventional and addressable.

Conventional panels

The panels have different alarm zones and each zone has a capacity of 32 devices of detectors and push buttons (according to regulations).

These panels have zones that connect the detectors and push buttons by wire (from 1 mm to 2.5 mm). In general the wiring can be extended up to 800 meters or 1200 meters, always with certified cable, twisted (more than 20 laps per meter) and free of allogens (RF in signaling devices), and with a resistance at the end of the zone.

In each zone you can install up to 32 devices, but as they are all connected in the same line, we won’t know which one has been activated within that group.

In case of breakdown by open line or short circuit, we won’t have detailed information of where the fault occurred, we will know in what zone it is, but not in what device. In case of an active alarm, we can through the detector LEDs identify which one has the alarm activated, but if the alarm is no longer active, we can only identify in which zone.

In short these are the advantages and limitations to this system:

Advantages:

  • It is cheaper
  • It is easier to install
  • It is easier to program (those with programming)

Disadvantages:

  • More cables are needed for installation
  • The information delivered by the panel is limited
  • It has less flexibility in programming (the ones that have it)
central de incendios convencional

Addressable fire alarm system

With the conventional panels, we talk about zones, which are the terminals where we connect the peripherals, in addressable panels we will talk about loops (Signaling Line Circuits), which provides us with greater capacity and more programming features.

The loops have a greater capacity of devices and they also have greater control over each point (detector, button, module or siren). The addressable or analog system communicates with each point of the system through a data protocol obtaining information and individual management of each device.

In case of alarm, the control panel knows exactly which point (detector, button, module or siren) has been activated. The detectors, push buttons, modules and sirens have a unique address that differentiates them from the other devices.

The capacity of the analog panels is greater than those of the conventional ones, up to 254 devices in the same loop, having a point-to-point description in the entire installation

In case of breakdown by open line, the exact point of incidence will be detected, in case of short circuit we will detect where it has occurred. In case of alarm, failure or loss of a particular device we will know the exact device that has suffered the incident.

There is also a wiring difference between the two systems. In a conventional system the devices are installed in a zone and the line is closed with a resistance. In addressable the devices are connected to the panel in a loop where one wire is connecting all the devices, which makes the installation tolerant to failures, since in the event of a fault, the control panel will have the capacity to isolate it and continue reading the devices on both sides.

The advantages and limitations of the addressable system are:

Advantages:

  • Detailed information point to point
  • Reduced wiring installation
  • Great installation and programming flexibility

Disadvantage:

  • Higher price
central de incendios analogica